Annexe:Conjugaison en anglais

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La conjugaison anglaise est caractérisée par un faible nombre de formes verbales différentes (quatre pour les verbes réguliers et de cinq à huit pour les verbes irréguliers), ce qui la rend, au premier abord, moins complexe que la conjugaison française par exemple. Il y a néanmoins beaucoup de verbes irréguliers, souvent d’origine germanique.

Structure[modifier]

L’anglais est une langue très analytique et la conjugaison verbale en est donc périphrastique. La polarité, le temps, le mode, l’aspect et la voix sont montrés séparément dans l’ordre fixé comme dans l’exemple suivant :

Polarité Temps Mode Aspect Voix Verbe
-∅ (affirmatif)
-n’t (négatif)
-s (non-passé)
-ed (passé)
∅ (simple)
will (futur)
∅ (inaccompli)
have -en (accompli)
∅ (perfectif)
be -ing (progressif)
∅ (actif)
be -en (passif)
give

Les suffixes dans ce tableau se combinent avec l’auxiliaire ou le verbe suivant immédiatement. Par exemple, la forme la plus compliquée est créée comme ci-dessous :

Négatif Passé Futur Accompli Progressif Passif Verbe
-n’t -ed will have -en be -ing be -en give
would have been being given
wouldn’t

Le suffixe -n’t ne peut se combiner qu’avec un auxiliaire ou be, et un verbe ordinaire doit prendre l’auxiliaire do pour être négatif. Les six colonnes ont deux choix chacune, et ils produisent les 64 (26) formes suivantes :

Polarité Temps Mode Aspect Voix Verbe Résultat
-∅ -s give it gives
-∅ -s be -en give it is given
-∅ -s be -ing give it is giving
-∅ -s be -ing be -en give it is being given
-∅ -s have -en give it has given
-∅ -s have -en be -en give it has been given
-∅ -s have -en be -ing give it has been giving
-∅ -s have -en be -ing be -en give it has been being given
-∅ -s will give it will give
-∅ -s will be -en give it will be given
-∅ -s will be -ing give it will be giving
-∅ -s will be -ing be -en give it will be being given
-∅ -s will have -en give it will have given
-∅ -s will have -en be -en give it will have been given
-∅ -s will have -en be -ing give it will have been giving
-∅ -s will have -en be -ing be -en give it will have been being given
-∅ -ed give it gave
-∅ -ed be -en give it was given
-∅ -ed be -ing give it was giving
-∅ -ed be -ing be -en give it was being given
-∅ -ed have -en give it had given
-∅ -ed have -en be -en give it had been given
-∅ -ed have -en be -ing give it had been giving
-∅ -ed have -en be -ing be -en give it had been being given
-∅ -ed will give it would give
-∅ -ed will be -en give it would be given
-∅ -ed will be -ing give it would be giving
-∅ -ed will be -ing be -en give it would be being given
-∅ -ed will have -en give it would have given
-∅ -ed will have -en be -en give it would have been given
-∅ -ed will have -en be -ing give it would have been giving
-∅ -ed will have -en be -ing be -en give it would have been being given
-n’t -s do give it doesn’t give
-n’t -s be -en give it isn’t given
-n’t -s be -ing give it isn’t giving
-n’t -s be -ing be -en give it isn’t being given
-n’t -s have -en give it hasn’t given
-n’t -s have -en be -en give it hasn’t been given
-n’t -s have -en be -ing give it hasn’t been giving
-n’t -s have -en be -ing be -en give it hasn’t been being given
-n’t -s will give it won’t give
-n’t -s will be -en give it won’t be given
-n’t -s will be -ing give it won’t be giving
-n’t -s will be -ing be -en give it won’t be being given
-n’t -s will have -en give it won’t have given
-n’t -s will have -en be -en give it won’t have been given
-n’t -s will have -en be -ing give it won’t have been giving
-n’t -s will have -en be -ing be -en give it won’t have been being given
-n’t -ed do give it didn’t give
-n’t -ed be -en give it wasn’t given
-n’t -ed be -ing give it wasn’t giving
-n’t -ed be -ing be -en give it wasn’t being given
-n’t -ed have -en give it hadn’t given
-n’t -ed have -en be -en give it hadn’t been given
-n’t -ed have -en be -ing give it hadn’t been giving
-n’t -ed have -en be -ing be -en give it hadn’t been being given
-n’t -ed will give it wouldn’t give
-n’t -ed will be -en give it wouldn’t be given
-n’t -ed will be -ing give it wouldn’t be giving
-n’t -ed will be -ing be -en give it wouldn’t be being given
-n’t -ed will have -en give it wouldn’t have given
-n’t -ed will have -en be -en give it wouldn’t have been given
-n’t -ed will have -en be -ing give it wouldn’t have been giving
-n’t -ed will have -en be -ing be -en give it wouldn’t have been being given

Conjugaison[modifier]

Le présent[modifier]

Présent affirmatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I am I have I do I give I call I talk
2e you are you have you do you give you call you talk
3e he is
she is
it is
he has
she has
it has
he does
she does
it does
he gives
she gives
it gives
he calls
she calls
it calls
he talks
she talks
it talks
Pluriel 1re we are we have we do we give we call we talk
2e you are you have you do you give you call you talk
3e they are they have they do they give they call they talk
Présent négatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I am not I don’t have I don’t do I don’t give I don’t call I don’t talk
2e you aren’t you don’t have you don’t do you don’t give you don’t call you don’t talk
3e he isn’t
she isn’t
it isn’t
he doesn’t have
she doesn’t have
it doesn’t have
he doesn’t do
she doesn’t do
it doesn’t do
he doesn’t give
she doesn’t give
it doesn’t give
he doesn’t call
she doesn’t call
it doesn’t call
he doesn’t talk
she doesn’t talk
it doesn’t talk
Pluriel 1re we aren’t we don’t have we don’t do we don’t give we don’t call we don’t talk
2e you aren’t you don’t have you don’t do you don’t give you don’t call you don’t talk
3e they aren’t they don’t have they don’t do they don’t give they don’t call they don’t talk

Le verbe ne varie qu’à la troisième personne du singulier où on ajoute -s.

Le passé[modifier]

Passé affirmatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I was I had I did I gave I called I talked
2e you were you had you did you gave you called you talked
3e he was
she was
it was
he had
she had
it had
he did
she did
it did
he gave
she gave
it gave
he called
she called
it called
he talked
she talked
it talked
Pluriel 1re we were we had we did we gave we called we talked
2e you were you had you did you gave you called you talked
3e they were they had they did they gave they called they talked
Passé négatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I wasn’t I didn’t have I didn’t do I didn’t give I didn’t call I didn’t talk
2e you weren’t you didn’t have you didn’t do you didn’t give you didn’t call you didn’t talk
3e he wasn’t
she wasn’t
it wasn’t
he didn’t have
she didn’t have
it didn’t have
he didn’t do
she didn’t do
it didn’t do
he didn’t give
she didn’t give
it didn’t give
he didn’t call
she didn’t call
it didn’t call
he didn’t talk
she didn’t talk
it didn’t talk
Pluriel 1re we weren’t we didn’t have we didn’t do we didn’t give we didn’t call we didn’t talk
2e you weren’t you didn’t have you didn’t do you didn’t give you didn’t call you didn’t talk
3e they weren’t they didn’t have they didn’t do they didn’t give they didn’t call they didn’t talk

On ajoute le suffixe -ed pour former le prétérit. Le verbe ne varie pas selon la personne.

Le présent accompli et le passé accompli[modifier]

Présent accompli affirmatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I have been I have had I have done I have given I have called I have talked
2e you have been you have had you have done you have given you have called you have talked
3e he has been
she has been
it has been
he has had
she has had
it has had
he has done
she has done
it has done
he has given
she has given
it has given
he has called
she has called
it has called
he has talked
she has talked
it has talked
Pluriel 1re we have been we have had we have done we have given we have called we have talked
2e you have been you have had you have done you have given you have called you have talked
3e they have been they have had they have done they have given they have called they have talked
Présent accompli affirmatif (contraction)
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I’ve been I’ve had I’ve done I’ve given I’ve called I’ve talked
2e you’ve been you’ve had you’ve done you’ve given you’ve called you’ve talked
3e he’s been
she’s been
it’s been
he’s had
she’s had
it’s had
he’s done
she’s done
it’s done
he’s given
she’s given
it’s given
he’s called
she’s called
it’s called
he’s talked
she’s talked
it’s talked
Pluriel 1re we’ve been we’ve had we’ve done we’ve given we’ve called we’ve talked
2e you’ve been you’ve had you’ve done you’ve given you’ve called you’ve talked
3e they’ve been they’ve had they’ve done they’ve given they’ve called they’ve talked
Présent accompli négatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I haven’t been I haven’t had I haven’t done I haven’t given I haven’t called I haven’t talked
2e you haven’t been you haven’t had you haven’t done you haven’t given you haven’t called you haven’t talked
3e he hasn’t been
she hasn’t been
it hasn’t been
he hasn’t had
she hasn’t had
it hasn’t had
he hasn’t done
she hasn’t done
it hasn’t done
he hasn’t given
she hasn’t given
it hasn’t given
he hasn’t called
she hasn’t called
it hasn’t called
he hasn’t talked
she hasn’t talked
it hasn’t talked
Pluriel 1re we haven’t been we haven’t had we haven’t done we haven’t given we haven’t called we haven’t talked
2e you haven’t been you haven’t had you haven’t done you haven’t given you haven’t called you haven’t talked
3e they haven’t been they haven’t had they haven’t done they haven’t given they haven’t called they haven’t talked
Passé accompli affirmatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I had been I had had I had done I had given I had called I had talked
2e you had been you had had you had done you had given you had called you had talked
3e he had been
she had been
it had been
he had had
she had had
it had had
he had done
she had done
it had done
he had given
she had given
it had given
he had called
she had called
it had called
he had talked
she had talked
it had talked
Pluriel 1re we had been we had had we had done we had given we had called we had talked
2e you had been you had had you had done you had given you had called you had talked
3e they had been they had had they had done they had given they had called they had talked
Passé accompli affirmatif (contraction)
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I’d been I’d had I’d done I’d given I’d called I’d talked
2e you’d been you’d had you’d done you’d given you’d called you’d talked
3e he’d been
she’d been
it’d been
he’d had
she’d had
it’d had
he’d done
she’d done
it’d done
he’d given
she’d given
it’d given
he’d called
she’d called
it’d called
he’d talked
she’d talked
it’d talked
Pluriel 1re we’d been we’d had we’d done we’d given we’d called we’d talked
2e you’d been you’d had you’d done you’d given you’d called you’d talked
3e they’d been they’d had they’d done they’d given they’d called they’d talked
Passé accompli négatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I hadn’t been I hadn’t had I hadn’t done I hadn’t given I hadn’t called I hadn’t talked
2e you hadn’t been you hadn’t had you hadn’t done you hadn’t given you hadn’t called you hadn’t talked
3e he hadn’t been
she hadn’t been
it hadn’t been
he hadn’t had
she hadn’t had
it hadn’t had
he hadn’t done
she hadn’t done
it hadn’t done
he hadn’t given
she hadn’t given
it hadn’t given
he hadn’t called
she hadn’t called
it hadn’t called
he hadn’t talked
she hadn’t talked
it hadn’t talked
Pluriel 1re we hadn’t been we hadn’t had we hadn’t done we hadn’t given we hadn’t called we hadn’t talked
2e you hadn’t been you hadn’t had you hadn’t done you hadn’t given you hadn’t called you hadn’t talked
3e they hadn’t been they hadn’t had they hadn’t done they hadn’t given they hadn’t called they hadn’t talked

On ajoute également le suffixe -ed pour former le participe passé des verbes réguliers. L’aspect accompli se forme avec l’auxiliaire have qui a la conjugaison marquée ci-dessus. Pour les verbes réguliers, le participe passé et le prétérit ont la même forme et la même prononciation. Le présent accompli en anglais est structurellement identique au passé composé en français, mais il ne signifie qu’un résultat ou une expérience au point de vue du présent, et il ne s’utilise donc pas avec un adverbe de temps du passé.

Le futur[modifier]

Will affirmatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I will be I will have I will do I will give I will call I will talk
2e you will be you will have you will do you will give you will call you will talk
3e he will be
she will be
it will be
he will have
she will have
it will have
he will do
she will do
it will do
he will give
she will give
it will give
he will call
she will call
it will call
he will talk
she will talk
it will talk
Pluriel 1re we will be we will have we will do we will give we will call we will talk
2e you will be you will have you will do you will give you will call you will talk
3e they will be they will have they will do they will give they will call they will talk
Will affirmatif (contraction)
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I’ll be I’ll have I’ll do I’ll give I’ll call I’ll talk
2e you’ll be you’ll have you’ll do you’ll give you’ll call you’ll talk
3e he’ll be
she’ll be
it’ll be
he’ll have
she’ll have
it’ll have
he’ll do
she’ll do
it’ll do
he’ll give
she’ll give
it’ll give
he’ll call
she’ll call
it’ll call
he’ll talk
she’ll talk
it’ll talk
Pluriel 1re we’ll be we’ll have we’ll do we’ll give we’ll call we’ll talk
2e you’ll be you’ll have you’ll do you’ll give you’ll call you’ll talk
3e they’ll be they’ll have they’ll do they’ll give they’ll call they’ll talk
Will négatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I won’t be I won’t have I won’t do I won’t give I won’t call I won’t talk
2e you won’t be you won’t have you won’t do you won’t give you won’t call you won’t talk
3e he won’t be
she won’t be
it won’t be
he won’t have
she won’t have
it won’t have
he won’t do
she won’t do
it won’t do
he won’t give
she won’t give
it won’t give
he won’t call
she won’t call
it won’t call
he won’t talk
she won’t talk
it won’t talk
Pluriel 1re we won’t be we won’t have we won’t do we won’t give we won’t call we won’t talk
2e you won’t be you won’t have you won’t do you won’t give you won’t call you won’t talk
3e they won’t be they won’t have they won’t do they won’t give they won’t call they won’t talk
Shall affirmatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I shall be I shall have I shall do I shall give I shall call I shall talk
2e you shall be you shall have you shall do you shall give you shall call you shall talk
3e he shall be
she shall be
it shall be
he shall have
she shall have
it shall have
he shall do
she shall do
it shall do
he shall give
she shall give
it shall give
he shall call
she shall call
it shall call
he shall talk
she shall talk
it shall talk
Pluriel 1re we shall be we shall have we shall do we shall give we shall call we shall talk
2e you shall be you shall have you shall do you shall give you shall call you shall talk
3e they shall be they shall have they shall do they shall give they shall call they shall talk

Le futur se forme avec l’auxiliaire will qui reste invariable. L’auxiliaire shall, aussi invariable et pouvant servir à exprimer le futur, est de plus en plus rare, et est surtout utilisé dans les questions comme formule de politesse :

  • Shall you ask him, or shall I? - Lui demanderas-tu, ou dois-je le faire ? (question polie)
  • Will you ask him, or shall I? - la même question, mais posée de façon neutre ; shall est prescrit pour le pronom I dans les questions
  • Will you ask him, or will I? - Lui demanderas-tu, ou le ferai-je ?
    contexte envisageable : question ironiquement posée, ou bien l’on se parle sincèrement au sujet d’une décision à prendre ou de sa destinée

Le futur du passé[modifier]

Futur du passé affirmatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I would be I would have I would do I would give I would call I would talk
2e you would be you would have you would do you would give you would call you would talk
3e he would be
she would be
it would be
he would have
she would have
it would have
he would do
she would do
it would do
he would give
she would give
it would give
he would call
she would call
it would call
he would talk
she would talk
it would talk
Pluriel 1re we would be we would have we would do we would give we would call we would talk
2e you would be you would have you would do you would give you would call you would talk
3e they would be they would have they would do they would give they would call they would talk
Futur du passé affirmatif (contraction)
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I’d be I’d have I’d do I’d give I’d call I’d talk
2e you’d be you’d have you’d do you’d give you’d call you’d talk
3e he’d be
she’d be
it’d be
he’d have
she’d have
it’d have
he’d do
she’d do
it’d do
he’d give
she’d give
it’d give
he’d call
she’d call
it’d call
he’d talk
she’d talk
it’d talk
Pluriel 1re we’d be we’d have we’d do we’d give we’d call we’d talk
2e you’d be you’d have you’d do you’d give you’d call you’d talk
3e they’d be they’d have they’d do they’d give they’d call they’d talk
Futur du passé négatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I wouldn’t be I wouldn’t have I wouldn’t do I wouldn’t give I wouldn’t call I wouldn’t talk
2e you wouldn’t be you wouldn’t have you wouldn’t do you wouldn’t give you wouldn’t call you wouldn’t talk
3e he wouldn’t be
she wouldn’t be
it wouldn’t be
he wouldn’t have
she wouldn’t have
it wouldn’t have
he wouldn’t do
she wouldn’t do
it wouldn’t do
he wouldn’t give
she wouldn’t give
it wouldn’t give
he wouldn’t call
she wouldn’t call
it wouldn’t call
he wouldn’t talk
she wouldn’t talk
it wouldn’t talk
Pluriel 1re we wouldn’t be we wouldn’t have we wouldn’t do we wouldn’t give we wouldn’t call we wouldn’t talk
2e you wouldn’t be you wouldn’t have you wouldn’t do you wouldn’t give you wouldn’t call you wouldn’t talk
3e they wouldn’t be they wouldn’t have they wouldn’t do they wouldn’t give they wouldn’t call they wouldn’t talk

Le futur du passé (identique au conditionnel en français) se forme avec l’auxiliaire would qui reste invariable.

Le présent progressif et le passé progressif[modifier]

Présent progressif affirmatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I am being I am having I am doing I am giving I am calling I am talking
2e you are being you are having you are doing you are giving you are calling you are talking
3e he is being
she is being
it is being
he is having
she is having
it is having
he is doing
she is doing
it is doing
he is giving
she is giving
it is giving
he is calling
she is calling
it is calling
he is talking
she is talking
it is talking
Pluriel 1re we are being we are having we are doing we are giving we are calling we are talking
2e you are being you are having you are doing you are giving you are calling you are talking
3e they are being they are having they are doing they are giving they are calling they are talking
Présent progressif affirmatif (contraction)
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I’m being I’m having I’m doing I’m giving I’m calling I’m talking
2e you’re being you’re having you’re doing you’re giving you’re calling you’re talking
3e he’s being
she’s being
it’s being
he’s having
she’s having
it’s having
he’s doing
she’s doing
it’s doing
he’s giving
she’s giving
it’s giving
he’s calling
she’s calling
it’s calling
he’s talking
she’s talking
it’s talking
Pluriel 1re we’re being we’re having we’re doing we’re giving we’re calling we’re talking
2e you’re being you’re having you’re doing you’re giving you’re calling you’re talking
3e they’re being they’re having they’re doing they’re giving they’re calling they’re talking
Présent progressif négatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I am not being I am not having I am not doing I am not giving I am not calling I am not talking
2e you aren’t being you aren’t having you aren’t doing you aren’t giving you aren’t calling you aren’t talking
3e he isn’t being
she isn’t being
it isn’t being
he isn’t having
she isn’t having
it isn’t having
he isn’t doing
she isn’t doing
it isn’t doing
he isn’t giving
she isn’t giving
it isn’t giving
he isn’t calling
she isn’t calling
it isn’t calling
he isn’t talking
she isn’t talking
it isn’t talking
Pluriel 1re we aren’t being we aren’t having we aren’t doing we aren’t giving we aren’t calling we aren’t talking
2e you aren’t being you aren’t having you aren’t doing you aren’t giving you aren’t calling you aren’t talking
3e they aren’t being they aren’t having they aren’t doing they aren’t giving they aren’t calling they aren’t talking
Passé progressif affirmatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I was being I was having I was doing I was giving I was calling I was talking
2e you were being you were having you were doing you were giving you were calling you were talking
3e he was being
she was being
it was being
he was having
she was having
it was having
he was doing
she was doing
it was doing
he was giving
she was giving
it was giving
he was calling
she was calling
it was calling
he was talking
she was talking
it was talking
Pluriel 1re we were being we were having we were doing we were giving we were calling we were talking
2e you were being you were having you were doing you were giving you were calling you were talking
3e they were being they were having they were doing they were giving they were calling they were talking
Passé progressif négatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I wasn’t being I wasn’t having I wasn’t doing I wasn’t giving I wasn’t calling I wasn’t talking
2e you weren’t being you weren’t having you weren’t doing you weren’t giving you weren’t calling you weren’t talking
3e he wasn’t being
she wasn’t being
it wasn’t being
he wasn’t having
she wasn’t having
it wasn’t having
he wasn’t doing
she wasn’t doing
it wasn’t doing
he wasn’t giving
she wasn’t giving
it wasn’t giving
he wasn’t calling
she wasn’t calling
it wasn’t calling
he wasn’t talking
she wasn’t talking
it wasn’t talking
Pluriel 1re we weren’t being we weren’t having we weren’t doing we weren’t giving we weren’t calling we weren’t talking
2e you weren’t being you weren’t having you weren’t doing you weren’t giving you weren’t calling you weren’t talking
3e they weren’t being they weren’t having they weren’t doing they weren’t giving they weren’t calling they weren’t talking

Le présent progressif se forme à partir de l’auxiliaire be au présent (am, are et is) et du participe présent du verbe conjugué. Le participe présent est formé en ajoutant -ing à l’infinif, et s’il y a un -e muet, on l’enlève (give, giving, voir plus bas pour les autres règles). Pour former les autres temps du progressif, on conjugue le verbe be au passé composé, au prétérit, au futur, au conditionnel, etc.

L’impératif et l’hortatif[modifier]

Impératif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Affirmatif be have do give call talk
Négatif don’t be don’t have don’t do don’t give don’t call don’t talk
Hortatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Affirmatif let’s be let’s have let’s do let’s give let’s call let’s talk
Négatif let’s not be let’s not have let’s not do let’s not give let’s not call let’s not talk

Parce que l’anglais ne distingue plus le singulier du pluriel de la 2e personne (you), il n’existe qu’une forme de l’impératif, mais on doit distinguer bien les deux pronoms réfléchis yourself (« toi-même ») et yourselves (« vous-mêmes »). L’impératif, comme le subjonctif présent, est toujours identique à l’infinitif. L’hortatif est construit de la locution verbale let’s + verbe.

Le subjonctif[modifier]

Le subjonctif présent[modifier]

Subjonctif présent affirmatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I be I have I do I give I call I talk
2e you be you have you do you give you call you talk
3e he be
she be
it be
he have
she have
it have
he do
she do
it do
he give
she give
it give
he call
she call
it call
he talk
she talk
it talk
Pluriel 1re we be we have we do we give we call we talk
2e you be you have you do you give you call you talk
3e they be they have they do they give they call they talk
Subjonctif présent négatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I not be I not have I not do I not give I not call I not talk
2e you not be you not have you not do you not give you not call you not talk
3e he not be
she not be
it not be
he not have
she not have
it not have
he not do
she not do
it not do
he not give
she not give
it not give
he not call
she not call
it not call
he not talk
she not talk
it not talk
Pluriel 1re we not be we not have we not do we not give we not call we not talk
2e you not be you not have you not do you not give you not call you not talk
3e they not be they not have they not do they not give they not call they not talk

Le subjonctif n’existe presque plus en anglais moderne ; on emploie des structures comme I want him to leave au lieu de I want that he leave. Ici, le verbe leave est au subjonctif car il n’y a pas de -s à leave (he leaves, that he leave). Le subjonctif présent est toujours identique à l’infinitif, ce qui le rend surtout visible quand il s’agit du verbe be :

  • I demanded that he be here at nine. - J’ai exigé qu’il soit là à neuf heures.

Le subjonctif passé[modifier]

Subjonctif passé affirmatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I were I had I did I gave I called I talked
2e you were you had you did you gave you called you talked
3e he were
she were
it were
he had
she had
it had
he did
she did
it did
he gave
she gave
it gave
he called
she called
it called
he talked
she talked
it talked
Pluriel 1re we were we had we did we gave we called we talked
2e you were you had you did you gave you called you talked
3e they were they had they did they gave they called they talked
Subjonctif passé négatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
be have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I weren’t I didn’t have I didn’t do I didn’t give I didn’t call I didn’t talk
2e you weren’t you didn’t have you didn’t do you didn’t give you didn’t call you didn’t talk
3e he weren’t
she weren’t
it weren’t
he didn’t have
she didn’t have
it didn’t have
he didn’t do
she didn’t do
it didn’t do
he didn’t give
she didn’t give
it didn’t give
he didn’t call
she didn’t call
it didn’t call
he didn’t talk
she didn’t talk
it didn’t talk
Pluriel 1re we weren’t we didn’t have we didn’t do we didn’t give we didn’t call we didn’t talk
2e you weren’t you didn’t have you didn’t do you didn’t give you didn’t call you didn’t talk
3e they weren’t they didn’t have they didn’t do they didn’t give they didn’t call they didn’t talk

En anglais, le subjonctif passé n’est pas comparable au subjonctif passé français. Le subjonctif passé est utilisé pour parler du présent, comparable à l’indicatif imparfait dans « si j’étais » en français. Notamment, pour le verbe be, on dit if I were et if he / she / it were au lieu de was. De nos jours, cependant, if I was devient de plus en plus accepté, surtout aux États-Unis.

Voix passive[modifier]

Présent du passif affirmatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I am had I am done I am given I am called I am talked
2e you are had you are done you are given you are called you are talked
3e he is had
she is had
it is had
he is done
she is done
it is done
he is given
she is given
it is given
he is called
she is called
it is called
he is talked
she is talked
it is talked
Pluriel 1re we are had we are done we are given we are called we are talked
2e you are had you are done you are given you are called you are talked
3e they are had they are done they are given they are called they are talked
Présent du passif affirmatif (contraction)
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I’m had I’m done I’m given I’m called I’m talked
2e you’re had you’re done you’re given you’re called you’re talked
3e he’s had
she’s had
it’s had
he’s done
she’s done
it’s done
he’s given
she’s given
it’s given
he’s called
she’s called
it’s called
he’s talked
she’s talked
it’s talked
Pluriel 1re we’re had we’re done we’re given we’re called we’re talked
2e you’re had you’re done you’re given you’re called you’re talked
3e they’re had they’re done they’re given they’re called they’re talked
Présent du passif négatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I am not had I am not done I am not given I am not called I am not talked
2e you aren’t had you aren’t done you aren’t given you aren’t called you aren’t talked
3e he isn’t had
she isn’t had
it isn’t had
he isn’t done
she isn’t done
it isn’t done
he isn’t given
she isn’t given
it isn’t given
he isn’t called
she isn’t called
it isn’t called
he isn’t talked
she isn’t talked
it isn’t talked
Pluriel 1re we aren’t had we aren’t done we aren’t given we aren’t called we aren’t talked
2e you aren’t had you aren’t done you aren’t given you aren’t called you aren’t talked
3e they aren’t had they aren’t done they aren’t given they aren’t called they aren’t talked
Passé du passif affirmatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I was had I was done I was given I was called I was talked
2e you were had you were done you were given you were called you were talked
3e he was had
she was had
it was had
he was done
she was done
it was done
he was given
she was given
it was given
he was called
she was called
it was called
he was talked
she was talked
it was talked
Pluriel 1re we were had we were done we were given we were called we were talked
2e you were had you were done you were given you were called you were talked
3e they were had they were done they were given they were called they were talked
Passé du passif négatif
Verbes irréguliers Verbes réguliers
have do give call talk
Singulier 1re I wasn’t had I wasn’t done I wasn’t given I wasn’t called I wasn’t talked
2e you weren’t had you weren’t done you weren’t given you weren’t called you weren’t talked
3e he wasn’t had
she wasn’t had
it wasn’t had
he wasn’t done
she wasn’t done
it wasn’t done
he wasn’t given
she wasn’t given
it wasn’t given
he wasn’t called
she wasn’t called
it wasn’t called
he wasn’t talked
she wasn’t talked
it wasn’t talked
Pluriel 1re we weren’t had we weren’t done we weren’t given we weren’t called we weren’t talked
2e you weren’t had you weren’t done you weren’t given you weren’t called you weren’t talked
3e they weren’t had they weren’t done they weren’t given they weren’t called they weren’t talked

La voix passive n’est pas un temps mais un changement de voix. L’équivalent français serait je suis appelé. Le participe passé reste invariable, le temps de la phrase est indiqué par la conjugaison de be. Il ne faut pas confondre entre I am calling (le présent progressif de la voix active) et I am called (le présent simple de la voix passive).

Les changements au radical[modifier]

Prétérit et participe passé[modifier]

Pour les verbes réguliers (ou « faibles »), le participe passé se forme avec le suffixe -ed: workworked.

  • Si la base se termine en e, on ajoute simplement -d :
  • Si la base se termine par une consonne + y, le y devient i devant le -ed :
  • Si la base se termine par une voyelle + y, le y est conservé :
  • Les verbes courts (de trois ou quatre lettres) avec la terminaison -ay prennent la terminaison -aid :
  • La règle de redoublement de la consonne finale est la même pour le prétérit que pour le participe présent : voir ci-dessous.

Participe présent[modifier]

  • Si la base verbale se termine par un e muet, ce e est supprimé : believebelieving.
  • Dans le cas contraire il est conservé : agreeagreeing.
  • Si la base se termine par -ie, le ie devient y avant -ing : lielying.
  • Si :
    • la base se termine par une consonne seule ;
    • et si une voyelle seule précède cette consonne ;
    • et si la dernière syllabe du verbe est accentuée
  • alors la consonne finale est redoublée avant l'ajout du suffixe :
  • Ceci pour ne pas modifier la prononciation de la voyelle.

En anglais britannique, par exception à la règle ci-dessus, le l final est redoublé même si la dernière syllabe n'est pas accentuée : yodelyodelling, traveltravelling; en anglais américain cette exception n'existe pas : yodeling, traveling. De même pour focusfocussing (anglais américain focusing).

Exceptions :

Troisième personne du singulier du présent indicatif[modifier]

Verbes irréguliers[modifier]

Voir aussi : L’annexe Verbes irréguliers en anglais Supplément annexe

Verbes auxiliaires[modifier]

Comme en français, les verbes les plus utilisés sont souvent aussi les plus irréguliers : have (« avoir »), go (« aller »), be (« être ») et do (« faire ») en sont les meilleurs exemples. Certains verbes sont défectifs, par exemple can et must n’ont pas de participé passé, d’impératif, de participe présent ni de futur. Les seules formes existantes sont I can (le présent) et I could (le prétérit, le conditionnel). Le verbe synonyme be able to est employé pour les autres significations : I will be able to (« je pourrai »).

Autres verbes irréguliers[modifier]

Les verbes irréguliers sont très souvent d’origine germanique. Les changement typiques sont :

Voir aussi[modifier]